False (T/F) A fault is simply a crack in a rock. (T/F) Ductile deformation is common in the deep crust and mantle. True (T/F) Faults are expressions of brittle deformation. Normal faults result in horizontal? False (T/F) Organisms with hard parts became common in the Archean True. Stress is the force that acts to deform rock bodies; strain is the resulting deformation. Faults result from ductile deformation. False. The San Andreas Fault in California is considered a right-lateral strike-slip fault. while ductile deformation dominates in the Earth's interior True or false? 3. Faults represent. A) Brittle deformation. B) Ductile deformation. 4. Both anticlines and synclines both result from tensional stress. True or false? 5. While plate tectonics and other internal processes are constantly working to uplift mountains, weathering and erosion are also constantly working to bring those mountains back. Faults result from: A) brittle deformation of rocks. B) ductile deformation of rocks. C) folding of rocks. D) all of these. The San Andreas Fault is an example of a left-lateral dip-slip fault. A) TRUE B) FALSE. B) FALSE. An anticline is a fold shaped like an arch. A) TRUE B) FALSE True ou Answered ou Answered False orrect Answer 0 / 1 pts Question 11 Faults result from ductile deformation. True ou Answered ou Answered False orrect Answer 0 / 1 pts Question 12 The higher the temperature, the more likely it is that a rock will deform _____. Brittlely ou Answered ou Answered Ductilely orrect Answer orrect Answer Elasticall
D.Ductile deformation can result in tight folds, whereas elastic deformation usually terminates in brittle deformation rather than tight folding.E.Ductile deformation results in folds, whereas elastic deformation results in faults. A. once the stress is removed, rocks that have undergone ductile deformation reatin their new shap false. T or F: Folds can form from compression, tension, and shear stress. fault. Which of the following in NOT associated with ductile deformation? continental collision subduction continental rifting. Mountain building is caused by _____. such as a fault plane, that results from forces applied perpendicular to the surface or from remote. Whether a rock undergoes brittle or ductile deformation depends on. Temperature, pressure, deformation (strain) rate, composition. Subduction, continental collision, continental rifting, delamination of the lithosphere. Nice work
True or False? a. The sedimentary rock shown here has been significantly displaced. Brittle deformation describes a rock breaking as a result of stress, whereas ductile deformation describes a rock bending or folding as a result of stress. Movement along a steep fault in basement rock pushes up a portion of the ductile rock layers above it Joints and Faults . Rocks that undergo brittle deformation tend to fracture into joints and faults. Joints. 1. Figure 10.20: A joint is a crack in a rock along which no appreciable movement has occurred. Strata on one side of the joint align with strata on the other side. 2. Joints can form as a result of expansion and contraction of rocks
FALSE Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Topic: Deformation 14. A rock that behaves in a ductile manner will bend under stress but will not return to its original shape. TRUE Bloom's Level: 2. Understand Topic: Deformation 15. A thrust fault is a reverse in which the dip of the fault plane is at a low angle. TRUE Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Topic. Answering the following true/false questions and grading the results will give you a good indication of how well you comprehend the information presented in the chapter. Geologists use the measurements strike and dip to help determine the orientation or attitude of a rock layer or fault surface. True False: Ductile deformation produces.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 59) Bulk modulus is a measure of the strength of Earth materials. 60) Ductile materials have a high elastic limit. 61) Faults are the result of brittle deformation. 62) Extrusive igneous rocks tend to be stronger than intrusive igneous rocks See Page 1. The difference between joints and faults is 1. Faults have no displacement, joints do 2. Joints have no displacement, faults do 3. There is no difference, actually. All joints form as a result of extension 1. True 2. False. All faults form as a result of compression 1 Pages 6 ; Ratings 100% (1) 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful; This preview shows page 3 - 5 out of 6 pages.preview shows page 3 - 5 out of 6 pages
Define the difference between a fault-bend fold and a fault-propagation fold. Ductile deformation of rocks can occur at the same temperature as brittle deformation of rocks. A. True B. False When is a reverse fault not a thrust fault? A. When the fault plane is nearly horizontal. B. oWhen the fault plane is approximately 30 . In earthquake-prone areas like California, strain gauges are used to measure this bending and help seismologists, scientists who study earthquakes, understand more about predicting them
35. False - A cross cuts B and B is therefore on the bottom. 36. False - C, D, and E are folded and H is not; therefore there had to be a period of folding in between. 37. False - C is a sandstone, B is a schist; sedimentary rocks cannot intrude. 38. True - If the folding had occurred after Fault Z would also be folded and it is not. 39 Occurs when limits of both elastic and ductile deformation are exceeded. Ductile Deformation Vs. Fracture folds die out becoming smaller; some monoclines result from fault movement that causes ductile strata to bend; some thrust faults probably started as recumbent folds. False (Isoclinal have parallel limbs and axial planes) Test. Question: Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Joints Are True And Which Are False? This problem has been solved! See the answer. Which of the following statements regarding joints are true and which are false? Expert Answer . Previous question Next question. 25 Questions Show answers. Tectonic forces that are operating inside the earth causes rocks to undergo deformation. Folds are planar structures resulting from brittle deformation caused by two sliding plates. Movement of tectonic plates and formation of volcanoes are endogenic processes. Removal of volatile during metamorphism increases the. Which one of the following is consistent with deformation by folding? A) The crust is stretched and elongated. True or False True 24 A graben is an upraised block bounded by two reverse faults. True or False False 25 Plastic deformation occurs more readily in warm rock than in cool rock
False . Rock flower that is picked up transported and redeposited by the wind may form? fault-block bounded mountain ranges with valleys in between slower strain rates can result in ductile deformation . strain rate . geological field method; the azimuth of a horizontal line in a plane . strike. Identify the FALSE statement.Brittle deformation... a) produces folds and faults. b) occurs above a depth of about 10 to 15 km. c) occurs above the brittle-ductile transition zone. d) structures can be found in the same outcrop as ductile deformation structures because deformation rates may change during the course of an orogen Shear zones and faults Figure 1. Fault, fault zone, shear zone. Shear zones are zones of intense ductile deformation that are thin relative their lateral extent. Shear zones, like faults, typically show offsets of older structures, but unlike faults, they lack through-going brittle fractures. In practice, faults and shear zones are closely related
True / Fasle. Place an A for True and B for False in the space to left of number (15 Pts) ___37. Axial surfaces of upright folds will be oriented perpendicular to the short axis of the strain ellipse, with the long axis of the strain ellipse parallel to the fold axis. ___38. Mode I extension fractures form parallel to σ1. ___39 The results show that the striated strike-slip faults/brittle-ductile shear zones and the thrusts are compatible with horizontal ENE-WSW-directed maximum compression, σ 1 (Fig. 8a, b). However, the shape factor, ϕ = (σ 2 −σ 3 )/(σ 1 −σ 3 ), determined via palaeostress analyses, is insignificant due to the Andersonian geometry of the.
Multiple Choice Questions. for Crustal Deformation - Chapter 15. The dip of a unit represents the ___________ . direction of intersection of the rock layer an a horizontal surface. part of the unit which has been eroded. angle at which the bed inclines from the horizontal. tilt of the rock unit before deformation Cataclastic metamorphism occurs as a result of mechanical deformation, like when two bodies of rock slide past one another along a fault zone. Heat is generated by the friction of sliding along such a shear zone, and the rocks tend to be mechanically deformed, being crushed and pulverized, due to the shearing True-False. Mark A for true and B for false. 51. In a right lateral strike slip fault, objects that were displaced by the fault lie to your right as you stand with your back to the fault. 52. The strike is the direction of a line formed by a rock plane and a horizontal plane. 53. If the hinge line of a fold is not horizontal, it is a plunging. The primary goal of seismic provisions in building codes is to protect life safety through the prevention of structural collapse. To evaluate the extent to which current and past building code provisions meet this objective, the authors have conducted detailed assessments of collapse risk of reinforced-concrete moment frame buildings, including both 'ductile' frames that conform to current.
Answer to: Brittle metals, unlike ductile metals, exhibit a considerably large plastic deformation before sudden failure. A. True B. False By.. _____ A material that undergoes ductile deformation will return to its original state if stress is reduced to zero. _____ The focus of an earthquake is usually several kilometers below Earth's surface. Section Assessment 3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false. Forces Within Earth true true false true
Circle the letters of the statements that are true about rock deformation. a. Ductile deformation is strongly aided by high temperature and high confining pressure. b. Small stresses applied over time play an important role in rock deformation. c. The mineral composition and texture of a rock affects how it will deform. undergo? 8. 10. 11 Reverse Faults - are faults that result from horizontal compressional stresses in brittle rocks, where the hanging-wall block has moved up relative the footwall block.; A Thrust Fault is a special case of a reverse fault where the dip of the fault is less than 45 o.Thrust faults can have considerable displacement, measuring hundreds of kilometers, and can result in older strata overlying. a. Ductile deformation is strongly aided by high temperature and high confining pressure. b. Small stresses applied over time play an important role in rock deformation. c. The mineral composition and texture of a rock affects how it will deform. d.Rocks near the surface usually undergo ductile deformation. Types of Stress 7 A summary of sensitivity analysis results for the two limit states of interest for the 4-story ductile frame are shown in Fig. 3, where Figs. 3a and c provide a histogram of the 33 analyses for each limit state and Figs. 3b and d provide a tornado diagram of sensitivity results A reverse fault that intersects the Earth's surface at a shallow angle is called a _____. A. Threshold Fault Ductile Deformation. C. Non-Deformation. D. Melting Flow. E. Fusion Deformation . 22. Shock metamorphism results from the collision of two continental lithospheric plates. A. True. B
Study Geology Final (Previous) flashcards. Create flashcards for FREE and quiz yourself with an interactive flipper False: True or False An uplifted area created by magma from below is called a hill or mound. False: True or False If rocks become extremely hot during compression, they are more likely to fault then to fold. False: True or False The pushing and pulling of earth's crust is called deformation. False: True or False A bend in a rock layer is called. 15. A fault with no vertical displacement is a: A. Normal fault B. Strike-slip fault C. There are no faults without vertical displacement D. Thrust fault 16. _____ occur in ductile deformation, whereas _____ occur due to brittle deformation: A. Synclines, anticlines B. Anticlines, intrusions C. Folds, faults D. Thrust faults, syncline Brittle deformation causes rocks to be transported on faults and folds, whereas ductile deformation involves elastic and recoverable strain only. Brittle deformation is very similar to ductile deformation except for the elastic strain energy found in rocks that have undergone brittle deformation
Crenulation 8. Boudinage 9. Force 10. Stress 11. Negative normal stress 3 4. List three geometric elements that can be used to describe fold patterns in rock. (3 pts) 5. Compare and contrast between ductile deformation and brittle deformation (discuss processes and products of each). (3 pts) 6 C) a folded strike-slip fault D) The structure cannot be determined from the information given. 24.The type of fold depicted on the map south of the fault is a syncline a. True or b. False 25. What type of fault is depicted on the geologic map? A) a normal fault B) a thrust fault . Describe the differences between anticlines and synclines. Describe the difference in the rock unit age relationship between domes and basins. Describe a strike slip fault. Provide an example of one. Which of the structures discussed above are the result of brittle deformation Unformatted text preview: GEOL 101 1nd Edition Lecture 10 Outline of Last Lecture I II III IV V Metamorphism causes and types Metamorphic textures Metamorphic grade Metamorphism and plate tectonics iClicker Questions Outline of Current Lecture I II III IV Deformation Folding of Rocks Types of Faults iClicker Questions I Deformation Geological Folds Outcrop exposure of the bedrock without being. In your textbook, read about the different types of faults. For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A Column B 9. Fracture that forms as a result of horizontal compression 10. Fracture caused by horizontal shear 11. Famous California strike-slip fault 12. Fracture caused by horizontal tension 13
Answers. answered: jasjas12. it is with GDP—while countries might experience an increase in GDP, the metric fails to highlight major problems with the economy. Explanation: follow me thank you. Thanks. answered: Guest. Its in the national history museum and you can't se the original because its locked away in a vault. answered: Guest After the ultimate tensile strength, the true stress-strain curve can only be determined experimentally. This empirical equation only works in the region of plastic deformation, before necking occurs (i.e. between the yield point and maximum point on an engineering stress-strain curve). Converting between the Engineering and True Stress-Strain.
1. True (T) or False (F) (12 points) _____ a) Dislocation free materials. are possible albeit difficult to produce. _____ b) Dislocation climb is a process that requires the diffusion of void defects. _____ c) Both the Burger's vector and line vector vary along curved dislocation lines. _____ d) Preferred slip directions in crystals tend to be the closest packed directions Studied regions were in two very different fault settings related to the Africa/Europe collision, namely the intraplate low deformation rate Basel-Reinach fault (Switzerland) and th Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers Structures belonging to this phase occur over a large part of the inlier and indicate an important phase of basin-forming crustal or lithospheric extension at 1750-1730 Ma. Late intense ductile deformation and tight folding of the imbricate systems destroyed part of these older structures, and obscures their existence in many parts of the inlier What happens ductile deformation? When rocks deform in a ductile manner, instead of fracturing to form faults or joints, they may bend or fold, and the resulting structures are called folds. Folds result from compressional stresses or shear stresses acting over considerable time
Brittle deformation results in _____, while ductile deformation results in _____. Choose one answer. a. Stress; Strain A ductile rock is one that breaks quickly into sharp pieces. Answer: True False. Correct. Marks for this submission: 10/10. Question 10. Marks: 10 . 1. At which type of plate boundary would you find this type of fault A fault is a fracture or zone of fractures between two blocks of rock. Faults allow the blocks to move relative to each other. This movement may occur rapidly, in the form of an earthquake - or may occur slowly, in the form of creep. Faults may range in length from a few millimeters to thousands of kilometers. Most faults produce repeated displacements over geologi True or false: Rotation and translation are types of rigid body deformation, but distortion and dilation are not. Calculate the extension, e, for each axis of the strain ellipsoid shown in Figure 3.4 (Study Guide). Use the following values in your calculation: R = 20 cm, X = 10 cm, Y = 15 cm, Z = 30 cm Ductile deformation . fold or bend - rocks that are like playdough - it will not go back to its original shape Folds . bend in rock units - results from ductile deformation . Types of folds . Anticline, Syncline, Plunging, Structural dome, Structural basin Stress exceed friction between the rocks on opposite sides of fault, mass. The result of stress building up within rock layers from lithospheric plate movement causing rock to break or slip along faults As rocks on opposite sides of a fault are subjected to force and shift, they accumulate energy and slowly deform until their internal strength is exceeded. True or False: The farther the station from the focus.
load and displacement. A typical stress-strain profile for a ductile metal resembles the following: Fig. 1.2 Typical stress-strain curve of a ductile metal2 The material initially behaves in a linear elastic manner: stress and strain are linearly related, and on unloading, the deformation is recoverable. The slope within the linear elastic. Ductile fault >Shear zones are the analogues in a ductile material of faults in a brittle material. >Shear zones are regions of localised but continuous ductile displacement, formed under conditions of elevated temperature and/or confining pressure, in contrast to fault zones that are regions of localised brittle deformation. >Shear zones are. Brittle deformation occurs in rocks that are hotter, whereas brittle deformation occurs at low temperature where energy is lower. Brittle deformation causes rocks to be transported on faults and folds, whereas ductile deformation involves elastic and recoverable strain only
A type of reverse fault is a thrust fault, in which the fault plane angle is nearly horizontal. Rocks can slip many miles along thrust faults. A strike-slip fault is a dip-slip fault in which the dip of the fault plane is vertical and result from shear stresses. California's San Andreas Fault is the world's most famous strike-slip fault. It. For instance, most of the 18 cored faults with displacement larger than a few metres on the Gullfaks Field are minor faults (less than 100 m displacement), and it is uncertain to what extent these results reflect the deformation associated with the main faults in the field. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 10 Pervasive crenulations and mesoscopic to regional southerly verging folds are the result of D 3 NNE-SSW compression post-dating ductile deformation and contact metamorphism. Polymetamorphic assemblages of the Bossòst dome preserve a regionally confined zone of ESE-directed extensional shearing within an overall N-S compressional setting 4. Ductile fracture happens after extensive plastic deformations. a) True b) False Answer: a Clarification: Unlike brittle fracture, ductile fracture happens after extensive plastic deformation and goes through multiple visible stages before the final fracture is observed. 5. Which of the following cannot be a reason for ductile failure? a.
A. direction of intersection of the rock layer and a horizontal surface. B. part of the unit that has been eroded. C. angle at which the bed inclines from the horizontal. D. tilt of the rock unit before deformation The ductile equivalent of a fault zone. A belt of ductile deformation across which movement has caused significant offset between the two sides. Shear zones are typically formed at depths greater than brittle faults. Sheath fold: A fold having a strongly curved hinge, so that the geometry resembles a finger of a glove. (Sometimes called condom. Plastic deformation starts occurring after the elastic limit and between the fracture point. These materials are called ductile materials. Example the piano string breaks just after the elastic. elastic/ductile (recoverable) Deformation that is recovered with the stress is released.; plastic (non recoverable flow) Permenant deformation caused by flow.Plastic deformation occurs through microscopic changes within and around mineral grains and may involve sliding along grain boundaries, pressure solution, rotation, dynamic recrystallization, and internal gliding 6 Oct. 4 Ductile deformation (folds) Lab 5: Folding + rotations in the Schmidt Net Quiz 1 7 Oct. 10-14 Thanksgiving - Reading Week 8 Oct. 18 No Class Midterm October 21 and 22 for 1-Day Field Trip 9 Oct. 25 Ductile deformation (folds, foliation/lineation) Lab 6: Schmidt Net (Foliation, lineation, S-C fabric) October 28 and 29 fo
4 Sept. 29 Brittle deformation (joints, fractures, faults) Lab 3: Schmidt Net Projections (orientation of planes) 5 Oct. 6 Ductile deformation (folds) Lab 4: Schmidt Net (Folds), block diagram, cross section/map Quiz 1 6 Oct. 13 Thanksgiving - Reading Week 7 Oct. 20 Ductile deformation (folds, foliation/lineation A type of reverse fault is a thrust fault, in which the fault plane angle is nearly horizontal. Rocks can slip many miles along thrust faults.A strike-slip fault is a dip-slip fault in which the dip of the fault plane is vertical and result from shear stresses. California's San Andreas Fault is the world's most famous strike-slip fault Take a look at our interactive learning Flashcards about Geology- Structural , or create your own Flashcards using our free cloud based Flashcard maker
Low-angle normal-fault ductile shear zones and detachments. The lower metamorphic core regions of MCCs are usually overlain by a low-angle, normal-sense ductile shear zone or detachment fault. These can be overprinted by, or cut above by, a brittle low-angle normal fault (LANF) Some of the ductile-looking fabrics include thrusted microflakes in incongruous steps (Fig. 5b), trailed fault material (Fig. 5f), frontal push-up microridges (Fig. 5g), congruous drag-effect (Fig. 6h), plastic-like depressions, and folds. It is probable that these structures are the result of aseismic slip along the faults True False 2. Astronomy is a branch of earth science. False Brittle deformation and ductile deformation Ductile deformation and hard edged deformation 35. Brittle deformation of rocks causes them to 46. At a convergent boundary between two continental plates, what land formations will result? fault block mountains volcano mountains. Plastic deformation occurs by the following modes: 1. Slip 2. Twinning 3. Kink. Mode # 1. Slip: The surface of a crystalline solid which has been polished, Fig. 6.14 (a) and then plastically deformed, generally gets covered with one or, more sets of parallel lines, Fig. 6.14 (c). At high magnifications, these 'slip lines' are found to be.