Indian Embassy Germany COVID Registration

Welcome to Consulate General of India, Frankfurt, German

  1. Pause. Celebration of the 72nd Republic Day of India. Celebration of Constitution Day in CGI, Frankfurt on 26 November 2020. Consul General's visit to Dusseldorf on 12 November, 2020. 'India meets NRW: Sharing experiences between India and Germany in the field of Renewable Energy'. View All
  2. Registration Form Indian Nationals and Nationals of Indian Origin (OCI and PIO card holders) are requested to register with the Embasy of India in Berlin
  3. LATEST ADVISORY: TRAVEL AND VISA RESTRICTIONS RELATED TO COVID-19 | Attention Indian nationals! Prior digital registration is mandatory for entering Germany from an international risk area with effect from 1800 hrs CET on November 8, 2020 | Indo German Consultancy Services Limited, the sole authorised visa agency of Consulate General of India has shifted to new location at Spaldingstrasse.
  4. Regulations for entering Germany in connection with the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 and hints for persons from risk areas in multiple languages Frequently asked questions Here you will find the most important questions and answers about digital entry registration, proof of arrival and entry quarantine
  5. RESUMPTION OF PUBLIC DEALING IN CONSULAR WING OF THE CONSULATE. Report on German Government's Financial Support to Commercial Establishments to deal with Economic Impact of the COVID-19 crisis (04.05.2020) TRAVEL AND VISA RESTRICTIONS RELATED TO COVID-19 (02.05.2020)
  6. Welcome to the Consulate General of India, Munich. Consulate General of India, Munich was opened in May, 2002 with operational jurisdiction over the two southern German States of Bavaria and Baden Württemberg. The Consulate provides consular, commercial and other services to the residents of Bavaria and Baden Württemberg
  7. U.S. citizens in Germany can obtain a COVID-19 test by visiting this website (in German) to book an appointment, or by calling 116 117 to be connected to the local health authorities who will explain testing options. Travelers may incur charges for COVID-19 tests, although these vary by location. Residents may have access to free COVID-19 testing

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictions are in place for entry into Germany from many countries. Persons entering Germany from risk areas or by air must complete a digital entry registration. Visa & Travel restrictions in response to COVID -19 - Permitting certain categories of foreign nationals (including Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) Cardholders) to enter India . The Government has further considered the need for relaxation of visa & travel restrictions for more categories of foreign nationals who want to travel to India. 2 5 May 2021. 18:24 CEST. Due to the severe Covid-19 situation, there are strict travel regulations in place for travel from India to Germany and vice versa at the moment. Here's what you need to.

The German Government has lifted all travel restrictions for persons residing in the United States, effective Sunday, June 20, 2021 . Travel to Germany for all purposes is permitted again. However, a proof of vaccination or proof of recovery from COVID-19 or negative test result is still required for entry via air travel Government of India is planning to facilitate the return of Indian nationals stranded abroad due to COVID-19 pandemic in a phased manner. This facility is available to Indian nationals wishing to return to India for compelling reasons and would be made available on payment basis through non­-scheduled commercial flights.. Medical screening of passengers would be done before embarkation The German Government has lifted all travel restrictions for persons residing in the United States, effective Sunday, June 20, 2021. Travel to Germany for all purposes is permitted again. However, a proof of vaccination or proof of recovery from COVID-19 or negative test result is still required for entry via air travel 19 June 2021 - Webinar on Yoga for Covid Anxiety and Mental Health as part of the 7th International Day Of Yoga 2021 celebrations 03 June 2021 - High Commissioner of India, Singapore attended the handing over of a cheque of 1 million dollars raised by the efforts of Singapore Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SICCI) and the Little India.

Registration - Welcome to Embassy of India, Berlin(Germany

Form to be filled by Indian nationals who seek repatriation to India due to COVID-19. Registration of Indian Engineers in Kuwait Registration Drive for Indian nationals in Kuwait who do not have valid travel document Registration for Indian nationals stranded in Denmark due to COVID-19 Home › Registration for Indian nationals stranded in Denmark due to COVID-19 Registration Form The charm-offensive by the German Embassy in India came after Chancellor Angela Merkel lamented that they allowed India to become a major pharmaceutical producer in the world, while the industry has declined in Europe. She was worried that now EU countries will not receive enough medicines from India as there is a huge surge in Covid-19 cases in the country The 15th Summit between India and the European Union (EU) was held in virtual format on 15th July 2020. India was represented by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi. The EU was represented by Mr. Charles Michel, President of the European Council, and Ms. Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission Registration Form for Indian nationals stranded in Thailand due to COVID-19 | OCI cardholders stranded in Thailand - Registration Form | Registration Form for Indian nationals who wish to return to Thailand | 24 HOUR EMERGENCY NUMBER : +66-618819218 | www.indianvisaonline.gov.in is the official website of the Government of India for applying for Regular/e-Visa through online system | Now.

Welcome to Consulate General of India, Hamburg (Germany

Digital registration on entry - Bundesgesundheitsministeriu

Embassy of India. Washington DC ***** Registration Form for Indian Nationals. As per the press release issued by Ministry of Home Affairs on 4 May 2020, Government of India will be facilitating the return of Indian nationals stranded abroad on compelling grounds in phased a manner The Indian Embassy is always closed during Germany and India public holidays. Consular, Visa and Passport Services The consulate provides services such as issuing Indian visas to foreigners, emergency evacuation of Indians, Issuance and renewal of Indians passports, and protecting Indian citizens and interests in Germany To mark the 160th Birth Anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore, Embassy of India, Copenhagen organised an art workshop for elementary school children May 25, 2021 Ambassador H.E. Ms. Pooja Kapur paid a courtesy call on the Prime Minister of Denmark H.E. Ms. Mette Frederiksen on 13 May 2021 May 14, 202 A: Kindly contact the nearest Indian Consulate/Embassy along with copy of all the relevant documents related to your employment, stating the reasons as to why you want to go back to India, so that the nearest Indian diplomatic Mission can assist you with your concerns. You can also register your grievance, along with a brief description of your. Alerts and Messages for U.S. visitors to Germany. See all Alerts and Messages. Emergency Assistance. U.S. Citizens with emergencies, please call (030)8305-0. Outside of Office Hours, contact: (030)8305-0. Outside of Germany: 01149 (30)8305-0. Emergency Contacts - All Locations. International Parental Child Abduction

ISG Indian Students Annual Event 2019 in Magdeburg

A message for all Indian nationals who wants to go back to India due to Covid 19 situation. We request to support for all those who are unable to fill data on their own The purpose of this form is only collection of information to enable Government of India to plan for return of Indians from abroad in Covid-19 situation. This form is to be filled for a single individual at a time. For families a separate form may be filled for each member. Similarly for companies, a separate form may be filled for each employee

Those requiring to travel to India due to compelling reasons, may seek fresh visa from the nearest Indian embassy/consulate. Italian and South Korean nationals, who are granted fresh visa issued after 05.03.2020 should carry 'tested negative for COVID-19' medical certificate from designated laboratories of Italy and South Korea COVID-19 vaccine Belgium recognises India's Covishield vaccine, becomes 15th EU nation to do so. European nation Belgium has recognised the Serum Institute of India (SII) produced and AstraZeneca and Oxford University developed Covishield vaccine, the Embassy of Belgium in India informed on Friday (July 9, 2021) The Germany Embassy is always closed during Germany and India public holidays. Consular, Visa and Passport Services The consulate provides services such as issuing Germany visas to foreigners, emergency evacuation of Germany's citizens, Issuance and renewal of Germany passports, and protecting Germany citizens and interests in India The Indian embassy in Moscow is in touch with the Russian medical research institute that has developed the world's first Covid-19 vaccine to be cleared for use by the public, top government sources told The Indian Express.. Russian regulators last week greenlighted the Sputnik V vaccine developed by the Moscow-based Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, and President.

The DFAT registration portal is a database where Australian citizens and permanent residents who are currently overseas and wish to return home can register their details with DFAT. NOTE: This registration portal is not for use by Australians in Australia who are planning to travel in the future. Registering your details with DFAT does not. Embassy of India 13-15 rue Alfred Dehodencq 75016 - Paris, France. Fax: 00 33 1 40 50 09 96. a. Telephone number between 09:00AM to 05:30PM on working days from Monday to Friday :-Tel : +33 1 40 50 71 71 Tel : +33 1 40 50 70 70 b. Emergency contact number for Indian national for Loss of Passport Cases, Indians in Distress and Corona-virus Queries Since India is no longer an area of variant concern, Indian citizens can now travel to Germany and quarantine on arrival for 10 days. The quarantine period can be shortened to five if they test negative for COVID-19. Indians can now travel to Germany after the country reduced its travel restrictions for Indians, along with some other countries Helpline for COVID-19 : Phone Number (24X7) 011-24300666 Email id : support.covid19-boi[at]gov.in. For all immigration, registration, visa, ECNR etc. related queries Email may be sent on Support Centre's email id support-boi[at]mha[dot]gov[dot]in; Phone Numbers of BOI Support Centre 011-26711443 and 011-2671385 German Embassy in India and the German government are following the Covid 19 pandemic in India with deep sympathy and concern. India is our strategic partner, and we share a strong conviction that the challenges of this global crisis can only be met through international cooperation, the tweet by the German Embassy in India said

COVID-19: Registration of Indian nationals (including Students) in Ukraine desiring to return to India. India extends Lockdown for a further period of Two Weeks with effect from May 4, 2020; Ukraine extends quarantine till May 11, 2020 Life in the era of COVID-19 by Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Mod The new coronavirus entry regulation enters into force on May 13. Read on. Berlin: On Wednesday, the German government eased entry restrictions for travellers, allowing people who have been fully.

Self-Attestation to carry to Paris (transit) to board Vande Bharat Mission Flights. Registration for repatriation of stranded Indian Nationals through special flights from Paris. Travel and Visa restrictions dated 30 May. Air India Repatriation Flight from Spain - Updates. Travel and Visa restrictions dated 17 May Indian Embassy in Moscow celebrates Republic Day-2019 Update on Indian seamen on board LPG/C Candy and Maestro On the occasion of Felicitation of Bharat Ko Janiye Quiz, Ambassador addressed the gathering and awarded medals to winners of Round 1 of Felicitation of Bharat Ko Janiye Quiz in NRI category Update on Coronavirus situation - Federal Office of Public Health, Government of Switzerland. Ministry of Home Affairs (Bureau of Immigration): Visa restrictions related to Covid-19 dated March 18, 2020. Advisory for Indian nationals - Embassy of India as on 19 March 2020 Latest travel advice for India including how coronavirus (COVID-19) is affecting travel and entry requirements at this time as well as safety and security and local laws and custom PM's inaugural address at India Global Week 2020. PM's address at the inauguration of 13th COP to the Convention on Migratory Species in Gandhinagar Gujarat - 17 February, 2020. PM's address at 'Kashi Ek Roop Anek' event in Varanasi - 16 February, 2020. PM's Speech in Times Now Summit - 12 February, 2020

Visa & Travel restrictions in response to COVID-19 - Permitting certain categories of foreign nationals [including Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) & PIO Cardholders] to enter India; Embassy of India guidelines in light of COVID-19; Presentation COVID-19: Government Support to all Stakeholders Presentation COVID-19: Turning Crisis into. Indian Community Association in Egypt (ICAE) donated Rs. 30 Lacs to Indian Red Cross Society to support India in fight against Covid-19 pandemic Prev Play Pause next Ambassador Ajit Gupte called on Dr. Khaled N Al-Habbas, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, League of Arab States on 19 May 202

The Embassy of Canada in Berlin offers emergency and temporary passport services for urgent travel. The application needs to be submitted in person. Refer to our Service fees section to pay online before completing your passport application. Refer to Retiring abroad. Same-sex marriages are recognized in Germany In order to update the information of Nepali citizens who would like to return to Nepal in this uneasy COVID-19 pandemic situation are requested to submit their information. Information provided in this page shall be kept confidential and will be discreetly used by the Embassy of Nepal in Germany. Notice: JavaScript is required for this content.No Fields Found The Indian Embassy in the U.S. has set up a 24-hour helpline to address questions on the recent travel restrictions implemented by New Delhi in a bid to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus Namaste Switzerland- An exclusive Cultural Gala organized by Embassy of India, Berne to celebrate 75 years of India's Independence on 26 March, 2021. Ambassador Monika Kapil Mohta called on Federal Councillor H.E. Dr. Ignazio Cassis , Head, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (Foreign Minister) of Switzerland on March 18 in Berne

German Consulate General Bengaluru. 18,926 Followers · Consulate & Embassy. Video Transcript. In a major news, Germany has now decided to lift ban on travelers from India. I am being joined by Germany's ambassador to India Ambassador Ambassador Walter Lindner. May thanks for joining us here Ambassador Lindner France to supply India with medical aid to meet COVID-19 crisis. France will supply India with substantial medical aid to help the country tackle a huge second wave of the new coronavirus infections that are overwhelming its hospitals, the Elysee presidential palace said on Monday. The shipments to India will include oxygen generators. The Embassy of India, Phnom Penh facilitated repatriation of 154 stranded Indian nationals under Vande Bharat Mission. Celebration of 7th International Day of Yoga in Cambodia. Curtain Raiser Event For International Day Of Yoga- 2021 organized by Embassy of India. India Cambodia agree on enhanced road connectivity Health Alert - U.S. Embassy New Delhi. Location: India Event: On March 24, Indian Prime Minister Modi announced a nationwide curfew through April 15, 2020 in order to prevent the spread of COVID-19.While the exact parameters of the curfew are still unclear, U.S. citizens should cooperate by sheltering in place. U.S. Citizens are required to comply with Indian law and obey directions from law.

The Indian Embassy in Bahrain was opened in January 1973.The activities of the Embassy include the following: To further strengthen friendly and cordial relations between India and the kingdom of Bahrain.To further develop and promote political, economic, commercial, social and cultural relations between the two countries.To serve as an. New Delhi: In view of the surge in COVID-19 cases in Germany, public dealing by the consular wing of Indian Embassy will remain suspended from Wednesday till further notice, said the Embassy of. India's new coronavirus infections hit a record peak as countries including Britain, Germany and the United States pledged to send urgent medical aid * New daily cases fall to 323,144 from Monday. Embassy of India, Baghdad Iraq has been integrated in the Global Passport Seva Project (GPSP) w.e.f 11.01.2021. All Indian nationals residing in Iraq under the jurisdiction of Embassy of India, Baghdad can access the new Passport Seva System to avail Passport services at the link given below :- https://embassy.passportindia.gov.i

Celebration of 74th Independence Day of India August 15, 2020. Celebration of 6th International Day of Yoga in Oman - Online June 24, 2020. Celebration of 71st Republic Day of India February 28, 2020. Embassy of India, in collaboration with ICAI, Muscat Chapter organized a seminar of India Budget 2020. February 19, 2020 A US embassy spokesperson said necessary precautions were being taken to safeguard health of US diplomatic staff in India after two died of them and more than 100 tested positive for Covid-19 in the recent weeks PRAVASI BHARATIYA SAHAYATA KENDRA (PBSK) TOLL FREE NUMBER: 800 46342 || Indian nationals stranded or facing any difficulty in Dubai and Northern Emirates due to Coronavirus (COVID-19) situation can reach us on our 24/7 helpline numbers 0565463903/ 0543090575 & Embassy of India, Abu Dhabi on 0508995583 Germany is frequently updating its travel rules to try and stem the spread of Covid-19 and variants in the country. Here's what you should know about foreign travel, testing and quarantine

Consulate General of India Munich,German

update on precautionary measures related to coronavirus : advisory on coronavirus issued by embassy of india, kuwait(13.03.2020) Revised Travel Advisory issued 11.03.2020 : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India: High Level Group of Ministers reviews current status, and actions for prevention and management of COVID-1 India reported a record number of new coronavirus cases on Monday and a death toll of more than 400 people in the past 24 hours as foreign embassies warned their citizens in the country that. Please visit the Embassy's COVID-19 page for more information on entry and exit requirements related to COVID-19 in Germany.. Visit the German Embassy in Washington D.C. website for the most current visa information.. Traveling Through Europe: If you are planning to visit or travel through European countries, you should be familiar with the requirements of the Schengen Agreement

COVID-19 Information - U

Visit the Embassy's COVID-19 page for more information on COVID-19 and related restrictions and conditions in India. Do not travel to: The state of Jammu and Kashmir (except the eastern Ladakh region and its capital, Leh) due to terrorism and civil unrest Indian Missions Abroad. Useful Links. The President of India. Vice President of India. Prime Minister of India. Indian Parliament. India at UNSC-2021-22. India at UNSC-2021-22. Weekly Roundup of India at UNSC Find the local emergency numbers under 'Local contacts' in the travel advisory for your destination. If you're overseas and need urgent consular assistance, contact your nearest Australian embassy, high commission or consulate, or call our 24-hour consular emergency call centre in Canberra on +61 2 6261 3305 Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictions are in place for entry into Germany from many countries. Persons entering Germany from risk areas or by air must complete a digital entry registration, undergo mandatory testing or provide proof of immunity, and comply with quarantine regulations

Information on entry restrictions and quarantine

The embassy has also appealed to Indian nationals to strictly follow the guidelines provided by the government of Qatar to avoid the spread of Covid-19 in the country It is informed that the Embassy of India, Abu Dhabi and the Consulate General of India, Dubai, have started a database to register Indians wishing to travel back to India under COVID-19 situation For restrictions that apply to vaccinated visitors, please check the official guidelines from Germany for the types of accepted and permitted COVID-19 vaccinations, requirements on proof of vaccination certificates, vaccination validity period, and persons and/or groups that may be exempt from vaccination restrictions

Details: German Foreign Office; U.S. Embassy, Berlin Greece travel Vaccine requirements: The country announced it is reopening to international tourists on May 15 Visa Service Availability. The United States Embassy and Consulates in Germany are resuming certain visa services, including immigrant visas for spouses and children of U.S. citizens, and most categories of nonimmigrant visas. Presidential Proclamations 9993, 10014 and 10052 limit the issuance and bar the entry of some categories of visas. COVID-19: India opens e-registration for its citizens in UAE wishing to fly home. Abu Dhabi: Indian missions in the UAE on Wednesday night opened e-registration for Indians wishing to travel back.

It is informed that the Embassy of India, Abu Dhabi and the Consulate General of India, Dubai, have started a database to register Indians wishing to travel back to India under Covid-19 situation Telephone conversation between Prime Minister and State Counsellor of Myanmar Daw Aung San Suu Kyi April 30, 2020. Embassy will remain closed on 14 April 2020 on account of birthday of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. Press Release-70th Foundation Day of Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) on 9 April 2020

Advisory: Travel and Visa Restrictions Related to Covid-1

Second India-Hungary webinar on economic impacts of COVID-19 November 23, 2020 A Conference to commemorate 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi was held at Széchenyi István University Gyor on 4th July, 2019 Till now, there are no positively tested cases of COVID-19 in Myanmar. The Embassy of India is closely monitoring the situation and is in touch with the relevant Myanmar authorities. It is requested that Indian nationals who have NOT yet registered themselves with the Embassy using this online form may kindly do so by clicking on the following lin 6th Foreign Office Consultations between India and Austria -18th March 2021. Ambassador Jaideep Mazumdar delivered a statement in the IAEA Board of Governors meeting on 1st March 2021 on the topic The IAEA and COVID-19. Ambassador Sri Jaideep Mazumdar called on the Prime Minister of Montenegro Prof. Dr. Zdravko Krivokapic

India has recorded over 1,600 positive cases of coronavirus and at least 38 deaths so far. Globally, the virus has infected more than 850,000 people and claimed around 42,000 lives COVID-19 Information Last updated: 6/24/2021 *** Effective January 26, all airline passengers to the United States ages two years and older must provide a negative COVID-19 viral test taken within three calendar days of travel. Alternatively, travelers to the United States may provide documentation from a licensed health care provider of having recovered from COVID-19. In view of the resurgence in Covid-19 infections in Norway and the corona related restrictions announced by the Norwegian Government with effect from 28th October 2020, the Consular services viz. Passport services, OCI services, Renunciation, Attestation/Power of Attorney, Life/Death Certificate, PCC, Emergency certificate etc. at the Embassy of India, Oslo can only be availed on prior.

EXPLAINED: The current travel rules between India and German

Effective January 26, all airline passengers to the United States ages two years and older must provide a negative COVID-19 viral test taken within three calendar days of travel. Alternatively, travelers to the U.S. may provide documentation from a licensed health care provider of having recovered from COVID-19 in the 90 days preceding travel The Indian Embassy has started sending emails to the community organisations and those who reached out to it recently. (File) Three days after the Government of India said it is making plans to evacuate Indians stranded overseas, the Indian Embassy in the United States Wednesday began contacting the Indian nationals who wish to return home once the international travel lockdown due to the. Embassy of Switzerland in Federal Republic of Germany. The Swiss embassy represents Switzerland's interests in the country and provides consular services and visa support for people resident in: Berlin, die Freistaaten Sachsen, Thüringen, die Länder Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstei India's total tally of COVID-19 cases surged to 3,04,11,634 with 48,786 new infections being reported in a day, while the recoveries have crossed 2.94 crores, according to the Union Health.

Track COVID-19 local and global coronavirus cases with active, recoveries and death rate on the map, with daily news and video The 'Registration Drive' is aimed at those who do not hold valid passport or emergency certificate, said Indian Embassy in a press release. The applications can be submitted at https://forms. VandeBharatMission - Phase-II. Air India Special Repatriation flights From Jakarta to India ( May 19-22, 2020 ) File Format: Youtube. File Size: -. Bharat Mela- India Bazar 2019 hosted by the Embassy on 30 November and 01 December 2019 The Indian Embassy in the UAE and the Consulate General of India in Dubai announced that a data collection form has been launched to create an online database of Indians who wish to travel back to.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) - Federal Foreign Offic

Indian tricolors on display on the Mexican Senate building and five major monuments of Mexico City on the night of 1 August on the occasion of 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations. Ambassador to interact with Indian community in Mexico and Belize - 14 April, 2020 at 11am. Emergency Contact Number COVID - 19 NEW DELHI: Indians in the United Arab Emirates will no longer be needed to register with the Indian Embassy for travelling to India and can book directly with Air India Express, the airline said on Monday.As India and UAE are part of the Air Bubble agreement, registration of passengers is no longer required and the bookings may be done directly with Air India Express, Air India Express wrote. Passengers coming from India shall quarantine for 10 days at a Government designated hotel or their residence upon arrival. All passengers (including transit) from India must provide a negative COVID-19 PCR Test report with a QR code not more than 48 hours before departure and undergo RT-PCR testing on arrival on their 5th and 10th day of their.

Embassy of India invites the Indian diaspora in France to register on the Global Pravasi Rishta Portal Message of External Affairs Minister on Passport Seva Divas - 24 June, 2021 Message by Ambassador H.E. Mr. Jawed Ashraf on the celebration of International day of Yoga 202 Contact Us. EMBASSY OF INDIA 46, Boulevard Aviatorilor, Sector 1, Bucharest - 011864, Romania. Telephone: +40 372 147 431/32 (0930 to 1230 hours & 1400 to 1700 hours) Emergency Contact: +40 731 347 727 [for Indian nationals in emergency situation only] Commerce Section: marketing.bucharest@mea.gov.in, com.bucharest@mea.gov.in, cons.bucharest@mea.gov.in. New Delhi: Lufthansa said Tuesday that it will have to cancel all planned flights between India and Germany from 30 September to October 20 because of an unexpected rejection of its flight schedule by the Indian authorities. The German carrier said it had applied for continuation of the special flights it was allowed to operate until the end of September but will now have to cancel the. Visitors: 22551994 | Page last updated on: 30-06-2021 Designed by Jadon Webtech Pvt Lt COVID-19: France, US deliver oxygen supplies to India. France on Sunday delivered to India 28 tonnes of ready-to-use medical supplies including eight large oxygen plants while the US sent to India. On Wednesday night, the Indian Embassy in Abu Dhabi announced that it has opened e-registration for Indians wishing to travel back home from UAE amid the COVID-19 pandemic, for various reasons